Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You – Secret Worlds: The Universe Within – Interactive Flash Tutorial #microscopy, #photomicrography, #science, #education, #optics, #tutorials, #powers #of #10, #photography, #flash, #orders #of #magnitude, #exponential #notation, #milky #way, #space, #solar #system, #earth, #moon, #planets, #leaf, #tree, #tallahassee, #national #high #magnetic #field #laboratory, #plant, #cell, #nucleus, #chromatin, #dna, #carbon, #proton, #electrons


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Secret Worlds: The Universe Within

View the Milky Way at 10 million light years from the Earth. Then move through space towards the Earth in successive orders of magnitude until you reach a tall oak tree just outside the buildings of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, Florida. After that, begin to move from the actual size of a leaf into a microscopic world that reveals leaf cell walls, the cell nucleus, chromatin, DNA and finally, into the subatomic universe of electrons and protons.

Once the tutorial has completely downloaded, a set of the arrows will appear that allow the user to increase or decrease the view magnitude in Manual mode. Click on the Auto button to return to the Automatic mode.

Notice how each picture is actually an image of something that is 10 times bigger or smaller than the one preceding or following it. The number that appears on the lower right just below each image is the size of the object in the picture. On the lower left is the same number written in powers of ten, or exponential notation . Exponential notation is a convenient way for scientists to write very large or very small numbers. For example, compare the size of the Earth to the size of a plant cell, which is a trillion times smaller:

Earth = 12.76 x 10 +6 = 12,760,000 meters wide
(12.76 million meters)

Plant Cell = 12.76 x 10 -6 = 0.00001276 meters wide
(12.76 millionths of a meter)

Scientists examine things in particular ways using a combination of very sophisticated equipment, everyday instruments, and many unlikely tools. Some phenomena that scientists want to observe are so tiny that they need a magnifying glass, or even a microscope. Other things are so far away that a powerful telescope must be used in order to see them. It is important to understand and be able to compare the size of things we are studying. To learn more about the relative sizes of things, visit our Perspectives: Powers of 10 activity site.

Note: – The sequence of images in this tutorial has been optimized for maximum visual impact. Due to the fact that discrete exponential increments are not always the most convenient interval for illustrating this concept, our artists and programmers have made dimensional approximations in some cases. As a consequence, the relative size and positioning of several objects in the tutorial reflect this fact.

The original concept underlying this tutorial was advanced by Dutch engineer and educator Kees Boeke, who first utilized powers to aid in visualization of large numbers in a 1957 publication entitled “Cosmic View, the Universe in 40 Jumps “. Several years later, in 1968, architect Charles Eames, along with his wife Ray, directed a “rough sketch” film of the same concept and finally completed the work (entitled the “Powers of Ten “) with the assistance of Philip Morrison in 1977. Other notable contributors to this effort include Philip’s wife Phylis, who has assisted in translation of the concept into several beautifully illustrated books that are currently still available through the booksellers.

Purchase Nikon’s Small World 2017 Calendar – The Nikon Small World 2017 Calendar is printed in full color on 8.5 x 11 semi-gloss paper and spiral bound for mounting on the wall. Included in the calendar are the top 20 prize winners and thumbnail images from all of the 15 honorable mentions. Winning entries included neurons, Quantum Dot crystals, plant tissues and fibers, cells in culture, recrystallized chemicals, animal tissue sections, a tapeworm, and several microscopic invertebrates. This year’s contest drew entrants from over 50 countries, as well as from a diverse range of academic and professional disciplines. Winners came from such fields as chemistry, biology, materials research, botany, and biotechnology.

David A. Hahn. Christopher A. Burdett and Michael W. Davidson – National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr. The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.

Questions or comments? Send us an email.

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Trees That Drip a Lot of Sap #tree #sap


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Trees That Drip a Lot of Sap

Prune “bleeder” trees during late spring, summer or fall to help prevent sap from seeping out of the cuts.

The sticky substance seeping out of trees called sap is a vital part of the tree s life. Sap carries important nutrients, water and hormones through the tree that are essential for a healthy plant. Pruning, damage, pests and disease are common reasons why trees ooze and drip sap. However, certain species of trees naturally produce more sap then others, and are more susceptible to problems that lead to an excessive amount of sap dripping.

Trees That Drip Sap

Part of the Aceraceae family, maples produce an excessive amount of sap; it’s this sap from sugar maples (Acer saccharum) that is harvested for maple syrup. Sugar maples can grow in Sunset zones 1 through 10 and 14 through 20, while the Japanese maple (Acer palmatum) can grows in zones 2 through 10, 12 and 14 through 24. Belonging to the Ulmaceae family, elms have a tendency to “bleed” an excessive amount of sap when the limbs or bark of the tree becomes damaged or wounded. The Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia) grows in Sunset zones 8, 9 and 12 through 24, while the American elm (Ulmus americana) can grow in zones 1 through 11 and 14 through 21. Members of Betulaceae family, birches produce an abundance of sap, which is harvested for various uses including as syrup and beer. The river birch (Betula nigra) grows in Sunset zones 1a through 24, and the monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana) grows in zones 3 through 9 and 14 through 24. Like the elms, honey locusts (Gleditsia triacanthos) will produce an excessive amount of sap when the plant is injured or pruned. This self-sowing tree can grow in Sunset zones 1 through 16 and 18 through 20 but can become invasive.

Trees That Don t Drip Sap

Since all trees produce sap, every species of tree is susceptible to sap leakage. However, certain trees are more resistant to sap-inducing diseases and pests, and planting these types of trees will help reduce the chance of sap-related problems. Growing in Sunset zones 1 through 12 and 14 through 21, the English oak (Quercus robur) is a hardy tree that generally does not produce an abundance of sap and is resistant to many pests and diseases, including the fungus that causes Verticillium wilt. The Japanese snowdrop (Styrax japonicus) tree reaches up to 25 feet and produces fragrant blooms. This practically pest-free tree is native to Japan, Korea and China, and can grow in Sunset zones 3 through 10 and 14 through 21.

Pests and Diseases

Several damaging pests can increase the chance of trees dripping an excessive amount of sap. The bark beetle lays its eggs beneath the surface of the tree bark. Once the larvae hatch, they continue to bore through the tree, creating tunnels. As a defense against the pest, the tree produces sap into the holes bored by the bark beetle to prevent the insect from laying eggs. This excessive sap can be seen seeping out of holes in the tree bark. The best defense against bark beetle is prevention; however, infected trees may be saved with the proper insecticides applied by a licensed pesticide applicator. Common garden pests such as scales, aphids and mealybugs feed on the sap of trees and excrete a sticky substance known as honeydew, which can be mistaken for sap. If not treated, the honeydew will increase the chance of sooty mildew growth. These sap-sucking insects can generally be treated with insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils. Many fungi and diseases that attack trees will cause sap to seep out of the bark. The bacterial infection known as wetwood is a common infection of elms and causes sap to seep out of the cracks and wounds of the tree bark. Trees infected with wetwood may have yellow, wilting leaves and branch dieback.

Pruning

Pruning trees of all species can lead to sap dripping from the bark. Fortunately, you can reduce the chance of prune-inducing sap by pruning the tree during its recommended time frame. For example, conifers pruned during their dormant season typically will not produce sap. Prune “bleeder” trees — such as walnut and dogwood — in early spring or fall.


Toy Cars and Vehicles, Buy the Best at Growing Tree Toys #second #hand #cars #uk


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Toy Cars and Vehicles Buying Guide

Vehicles are a part of our daily lives, so whether your family takes the bus, drives a personal car or lives on a busy street, kids recognize the important role that vehicles play in getting people from here to there. Toy cars and trucks fascinate children with their motion and pretend play possibilities.

Playing with toy cars offers kids the chance to make driving sounds, crash cars, and drive too fast around the corners, among other fun things. There are realistic toy trucks, simple wooden cars, crazy remote control rides, cars to build, trucks for toddlers and so much more!

There are so many ways to play!

Features to Consider

Toy cars can be as simple or complex as you want. Cars without sounds, lights and motors are great introductory items, and they also give kids a greater chance to engage their imaginations. But lights, sounds, and extras can be just as fun for young minds, while still allowing for pretend play opportunities – the added effects don’t force play in one direction, but can help open it up to even more options.

Another classic item, remote control cars are not only fascinating for growing children, but they help kids develop spatial awareness and coordination through play. And, some of our highly detailed construction or work trucks include lots of details and moving parts that allow kids to engage in realistic pretend play!

Open-ended, unguided play

  • If you’re looking for toys with open-ended dramatic play benefits, the simpler the better!
  • Look for wooden, kid-powered cars and trucks without batteries, sounds, or lights
  • Open-ended car play goes great when coupled with wooden building blocks

Realistic Play

  • While some vehicles are quite imaginative, most toy trucks and cars are based on the vehicles kids see every day
  • Many of these items are scaled like the real thing or include all of the details and added features that make for dramatic play based on what children actually see

Motorized play

  • Remote control toys teach kids fine motor control and spatial reasoning skills – and they are fun!
  • Toy vehicles with batteries can do a lot more on their own, challenging children to play and interact with them in a different way

Some Age Group Suggestions

12 months to 3 years

  • Chunky and colorful cars with rounded edges and no small parts
  • Simple cars that allow kids to use their imaginations and are great introductions to vehicle play

4 to 6 year olds

  • Kits and sets that challenge kids to build their own finished products, combining creative building and the fun of playing with cars
  • Realistic construction trucks or service vehicles make for pretend play based on the things children see in their daily lives
  • Vehicle play sets provide an added dimension to the singular vehicle by including accessories that help to enhance pretend play

7 year olds and up

  • Car building and craft kits are a fun way to let kids design their own toy vehicles
  • Outdoor airplane kits and remote control airplanes
  • More advanced remote control car play
  • Circuit kits and electric cars teach kids about the science behind the motion

Play Environment

It goes without saying that if you are providing children with an exciting vehicle, then you have to give them lots of space to build roads and cities so that their cars can drive freely. Most times, these supplies are not provided, but rather built by children on their own. Many look to wooden blocks to get the job done! Help improve the experience by coming up with unique way to incorporate familiar car activities, like car washes and gas stations made out of cardboard or paper.

When you have an expanding collection of toy cars, many of which are not small but large and full of details, you risk a floor covered in pedestrian traps and a lack of storage space. You can think of cool ways to categorize and store your cars. Try a toy box with differently sized dividers for all of the cars or low shelves that kids can access. You can show kids how to keep their cars neat and in order and even turn clean up into a game!

Top Developmental Benefits

Not all toy cars are meant to have logical benefits. But as children grow, there are many ways that they can turn car play into an experience that develops their logical thinking. Whether kids have to think about how to turn a less realistic car into a vehicle that is more true-to-life or they have to consider how a vehicle really works, they spend time pretending, recreating, and dreaming. As children grow, they can develop logical skills by building model cars or playing with moving parts.

Kids are engaged in spatial learning when they move cars around their play environment, understanding how the vehicles relate to their surroundings. This concept is especially true with remote control cars, since cars can speed around the house or the outdoors. As kids learn to control the movements of an object using a handheld controller, they learn about the distances and spatial relationships between objects.

Intrapersonal

Toy cars and vehicles lend themselves to very fulfilling intrapersonal play. Kids can be engaged for in their own little worlds when they’re surrounded by cars and vehicles.

Types of Play

Manipulative Play

Toy cars are perfect manipulative play toys! When kids push them around along the floor, drive them over banisters and into the sandbox, they’re working muscles and practicing coordination. Model-building toys take the manipulative play to the next level!

Dramatic Play

These toys make excellent dramatic play companions. As kids motor around, dig and build with toy vehicles, they’re learning about the real world as they imagine their own stories! And, when you add play sets and accessories to the mix, there really is no end to the scenarios that kids can play out.