Automotive Research – Tips on Trading Your Vehicle – TADA Editorial #car #insurance

#trade in vehicle

Trillium Automobile Dealers Association

10 useful tips on trading in your vehicle

Sandy Liguori – Tada President 2011-2012

Nov 09, 2011

When car owners are in the market to buy a new vehicle, they usually want to sell their existing vehicle.

They can sell it privately, which requires some legwork, patience and risk, or they can trade it in to a new car dealership. A trade-in refers to any vehicle that a car buyer intends to sell to the dealership as part of a deal in acquiring another vehicle (new or used).

The benefits of a trade-in (as opposed to selling privately) are the efficiency and convenience of buying and selling at one location, where you may already have a relationship, and significant tax savings.

The actual sales process and completing a purchase can be handled quickly even within a couple of days. Many busy consumers like the idea of dropping off their older vehicle and choosing a new car at the same place.

The other benefit is the tax savings. The value of a trade-in is deducted from the selling price of the car you re buying. This reduces the taxable portion that must be paid on the new vehicle.

Let s say you want to buy a new car worth $40,000, and your trade-in is appraised at $20,000. That $20,000 is applied toward the price of the new car, effectively reducing the selling price to $20,000.

In this case, the customer would pay tax on $20,000 ($2,600), as opposed to $40,000 ($5,200), a savings of $2,600.

Another consideration when trading in a vehicle is price. Here are 10 useful tips to ensure that you get top dollar for your trade-in.

  1. Understand that a dealer will pay top dollar on a wholesale level, but not on a retail level. That s because there are costs incurred by the dealer on all trades, such as vehicle inspections, reconditioning, advertising and sales commissions.
  2. Study the market. Used vehicle websites will give you a fair approximation of the value of your car. Canadian Black Book ( is considered the industry benchmark for providing market values for cars, trucks and SUVs on the wholesale level.
  3. Be realistic. Optimal prices are based on vehicles in immaculate condition, and few vehicles meet that standard. Knowing the true market value of your vehicle will give you leverage when negotiating.
  4. Make the car presentable. Vacuum the floors and trunk, and remove any dirt and debris from interior surfaces, including the dashboard, seats and door panels. Fix obvious damages, such as a cracked windshield, worn out tires or broken headlights. Repair any dents and dings in the car s exterior.
  5. Gather all service records. If you can prove that you have taken care of your vehicle with recommended service maintenance, it will command a higher price (either at a dealership or privately).
  6. Be honest about the car s true condition. It doesn t pay to lie or mislead the buyer; the truth about the car will be revealed in time. Dealers use the CarProof services to verify a vehicle s history.
  7. Don t remove or replace any parts or accessories after your car has been appraised. To do this is unethical and just plain wrong.
  8. Determine the current market demand for your make and model, and whether the dealership is overstocked for that model. Supply and demand and market conditions will affect how much a dealership is willing to pay.
  9. If you are driving an older model vehicle that is on its last legs, find out if there are any clunker programs offered by the manufacturer. Sometimes a manufacturer will offer a minimum trade-in allowance (approx. $3,000) on these older vehicles.
  10. Remove any personal items before delivering the vehicle to the dealership. Check the glove compartment, underneath seats and in trunks.

New Cars – New Car Discounts – Best New Car Prices – Car Research @ #scion #cars

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Public and Corporate Communication – University of Milan #university, #milan, #education, #research


Public and Corporate Communication Comunicazione pubblica e d’impresa (COM)

Course Objectives and Structures

The Master s Program offers a range of specializations in the professional fields of public and corporate communications, marketing, advertising and market research.

It aims to provide an interdisciplinary training with a strong link to the industry and advanced tertiary in the Italian and international labour markets, and to public and political organisations.
There are two curricula taught completely in English: Corporate Communication and Public Opinion Research and Communication Methods, and a third in Italian Comunicazione e Marketing.

The curricula are geared towards improving the basic competences and specific skills in several fields of applied communication. Acquired competences enable graduates to perform management and executive role in different industrial and commercial businesses, and in non-governmental and public organizations.

Career Prospects

Professional opportunities for graduates include high-profile positions in the organizations and management of public relations departments; jobs as planners and developers of institutional, corporate and marketing communications, including advertising and fashion; positions as communication strategists in public administrations, researchers and analysts in public opinion survey and market research industry; advocacy experts with companies, organizations and public or private bodies, also at international level; and political marketing consultants for parties and candidates.

Official figures show that more than 80% of post-graduates of this Master s find every year full employment.

Entry Requirements

International applicants should have a Bachelor s degree or equivalent in social and political sciences, journalism, communications, information technology, business, economics or related fields. Fluency in spoken and written English or Italian is required.

Applicants from EU countries and from non-EU countries (residing in Italy with residence permit) are exempted from submitting certificates for English/Italian (or to take the Italian language examination) because they must take the entrance examination.

Applicants from non-EU countries, residing abroad, who are interested in the two specializations taught completely in English must be able to demonstrate their knowledge of English either by showing they attended at least one year of university studies at institutions where the language of instruction is English, or by possessing one of the following EFL certificates:

Applicants from non-EU countries, residing abroad. who are interested in the curriculum taught in Italian should have good knowledge of spoken and written Italian. Applicants that attended at least one year of university studies at institutions where the language of instruction is Italian or applicants who hold a certificate attesting to their knowledge of the Italian language (e.g. CELI 3 certificate – level B2) are exempted from taking the Italian language exam that non-EU citizens resident abroad are required to pass before enrolling. More information about competence in Italian .

Study Plan

Curriculum 1
Corporate Communication

I Year
1 Data Analysis or Web Communication
2 Human resources management or
Digital media and global communication
3 Consumer culture or Public opinion analysis
4 Marketing advanced
5 Market regulation and business practices
6 Economics of Communication or Research methods
7 Communication research

II Year
8 Corporate communication
9 Advertising strategy
10 Elective
11 Internship and other activities
12 Master s Thesis

Curriculum 2
Public opinion research and communication methods

I Year
1 Data Analysis or Web communication
2 Comparative Political Behaviour or Communication research
3 Media and Politics
4 Public opinion analysis
5 Survey methods
6 Digital media and global communication or political Marketing Public Affairs
7 Research Methods

II Year
8 Big data and digital methods
9 Network Society
10 Elective
11 Internship and other activities
12 Master s Thesis

EU citizens, non EU applicants regularly residing in Italy and Italian citizens with foreign academic qualification

EU citizens, non EU applicants regularly residing in Italy and Italian citizens with foreign academic qualification must take the Entrance Examination (in English or in Italian). Application for the entrance examination should be submitted by August 31 2015 at 12 midday.

  1. Follow instructions in Applying for a Master programme with entrance examination
  2. Upload the following documents in .pdf. jpg or .rtf file.
    • Degree certificate and transcript: graduation certificate(s) issued by the competent University and transcript(s) recording exams taken, grades and credits
    • Passport – personal data: copy of the page with personal details;
  3. Pay the admission fee (30 euro), with Credit Card (Visa or Mastercard), while applying on line.
    Attention: the MAV (payment form) can only be paid in Italy (bank), if you are not in Italy choose credit card.

Examination date: 9th September 2015
Location: Facolt Scienze Politiche, Economiche e Sociali, Via Conservatorio 7 – Milano

The exam covers the following topics:
– English language
– Communication Theory
– Computer Science
– Marketing – Current news

Application for non EU students residing abroad

Non-EU applicants, residing abroad, are exempted from the Entrance Examination.
Applicants must necessarily contact the Italian Embassy/Consulate in their country of residence to submit the pre-application by the deadline fixed annually by Italy s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. At the same time applicants are required to submit their application online to the University of Milan, by August 31 2015 at 12.00 midday. as follows:

Note tecniche e contatti

Westside Sleep Center – Treatment of snoring, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and other sleep disorders #sleep, #disorders, #cpap, #bipap, #teeth #grinding, #uppp, #somnoplasty, #snoring, #sweating, #provigil, #night #sweats, #forum, #deprivation, #research, #narcolepsy, #sleepwalking, #sleeptalking, #apnea, #fatigue, #restless #legs, #insomnia, #sandman, #dreams, #nightmares, #night #terrors, #sleep #labs, #night, #ambien, #modafinil, #sonata, #stop #breathing, #nrem, #deprivation, #sleep #mall, #zoloft, #accidents, #night, #leg, #cramps, #sleeping #pills, #cataplexy, #nocturnal, #legs, #dement, #rem, #tonsils, #adnoids, #deviated, #septum, #steriods, #provigal, #zanax, #sonata, #ritilan, #dreams, #shift #work, #cronic #fatigue, #uppp, #infant #sleep, #children’s #sleep, #sleep #paralysis, #uars,scott #fromherz,portland,oregon,oregon #sleep #doctor,oregon #sleep #clinic, #oregon #sleep #center, #portland #sleep #doctor,portland #sleep #clinic,portland #sleep #center,tigard #sleep #doctor,tigard #sleep #clinic,tigard #sleep #center,beaverton #sleep #doctor,beaverton #sleep #clinic,beaverton #sleep #center,lake #oswego #sleep #doctor,lake #oswego #sleep #clinic,lake #oswego #sleep #center,tualatin #sleep #doctor,tualatin #sleep #clinic,tualatin #sleep #center,sherwood #sleep #doctor,sherwood #sleep #clinic,sherwood #sleep #center


Westside Sleep Center Better Sleep for a Better Life

Do You
Have Trouble

Everyone has an occasional sleepless or restless night. But, if snoring, restless legs or consecutive sleepless nights have become routine, it might be time to see a sleep specialist. Scott Fromherz, MD, founder of Westside Sleep Center, is a Stanford fellowship trained sleep physician with over eight years of experience in sleep medicine.

Dr. Fromherz treats all 81 sleep disorders, including sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs, narcolepsy and sleepwalking. Whether you suffer from a common sleep disorder or a rare idiopathic hypersomnia, he has the expertise to diagnose and provide you with complete comprehensive care.

74 percent of American adults experience a sleeping problem a few nights a week or more, 39% get less than seven hours of sleep each weeknight, and more than one in three (37%) are so sleepy during the day that it interferes with daily activities.

– The 2002 National Sleep Foundation, “Sleep In America” Poll

Our Address:
Westside Sleep Center
7450 SW Beveland Street, Suite 120
Tigard, OR 97223

Phone: (503) 404-3245
Fax: (503) 639-7006

Quick Answers

Below are some of our most common questions. As with any page on this site, this information is for educational purposes only and is not to be construed as medical advice.

Need a Sleep Physician in the Portland Area?

Call (503) 404-3245 to make an appointment with the Portland area’s highest trained sleep physician. Most insurances in Oregon do not require a referral from your physician. Sleep disorders are a normally covered medical benefit under almost all insurance plans.

What Sets Westside Sleep Center Apart?

A caring, compassionate environment and unsurpassed customer service is the standard at Westside Sleep Center. Our staff is trained to make you feel comfortable and relaxed. We greet you with a smile, address you by name, offer you tea or water and make sure you are seen in a timely manner. Westside Sleep Center uses only the most advanced equipment in a comfortable setting to determine the cause of your sleepless nights.

What Can I Expect?

Your visit to Westside Sleep center will be similar to any other doctor s visit. The main difference is that Dr. Fromherz will focus his questions specifically to issues relating to sleep. He may order a sleep study. This would involve spending a night in our sleep lab where your sleep, breathing and night movements will be monitored. Dr. Fromherz will then follow-up with you and prescribe a treatment plan to address your sleep problem. You won t be seen just once and forgotten about.

For more information on snoring:

Follow us on:

Westside Sleep Center, LLC

Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion Home #equity #research #summer #internship, #important #veteran #health #issue


Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion

Funded Projects

CHERP investigators lead or collaborate on projects supported by HSR D, AHRQ, and NIH. Many of these projects are aligned with our focus on the quality and equity of health and health care for vulnerable populations. CHERP investigators are also engaged in other funded initiatives.

Our Pilot Research Program continues to catalyze funding of full-scale research projects aligned with our mission.

Click the link below for a list of the funded projects that CHERP investigators are currently involved.

CHERP Investigator Research Activities and Collaborations


Health disparity is defined as clinically and statistically significant differences in health care or health status between distinct vulnerable and less vulnerable populations linked with social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage and an elevated burden of ill health or premature mortality. Such disparities adversely affect groups who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health or health care based on numerous characteristics linked to discrimination or exclusion.
The categories and/or domains of disparities research can include:

  • Examples of Vulnerable Populations
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Gender
  • Socioeconomic
  • Sexual orientation
  • Stigmatizing medical diagnoses (e.g. HIV, mental health, PTSD)
  • Generations of Disparities Research
    • First Generation – Detecting variation
    • Second Generation – Identifying reasons for disparities
    • Third Generation – Intervening on disparities
  • Factors Associated with Disparities Research
    • Patient level
    • Provider level
    • System level
  • Disparities Research Methods
    • Qualitative Research
    • Mixed Methods Research
    • Implementation Research
    • Analysis of existing databases


    This Resources page is in progress. Check back frequently for newly added information.

    CHERP Investigators may access the CHERP SharePoint Site by clicking on the CHERP link below

    Please note: Access to CHERP SharePoint resources via this link is limited to CHERP Investigators, must be done from a VA computer, and requires your VA log-in credentials.

    PVAMC CHERP Investigators may access the Grants SharePoint Site by clicking on the Grants link below .

    Please note: Access to Grants SharePoint resources via this link is limited to CHERP Investigators, must be done from a VA computer, and requires your VA log-in credentials.

    The Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion advances the quality and equity of health and health care for vulnerable Veteran populations through:

    • Rigorous health services research
    • Partnerships with VA operations and policy stakeholders
    • Research training and mentoring
    • Service

    This year we refined our organizational structure and expanded collaborations to support achievement of the Center of Innovation (COIN) program goals. We have advanced our cross-center research program through partnerships aimed at improving health care experiences and patient satisfaction with VA health care among vulnerable populations. We also have supported an emerging area of research concentrated on improving the quality, safety, and value of clinical therapeutics in the VA and beyond.

    CHERP leaders consistently respond to new opportunities to communicate the value of our research to VA leaders charged with ensuring the quality and equity of health care for millions of Veterans. CHERP Investigators are at the forefront of efforts to evaluate the impact of VA’s implementation of the patient-aligned care team model of care and efforts to translate VA research findings into clinical practice.

    About Our History

    The VA Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion (CHERP) was established in 2001 by HSR D as a national Center of Excellence focused on detecting, understanding, and reducing disparities in health and health care in vulnerable populations. This strong collaboration between the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System (VAPHS) and Philadelphia VA Medical Center (PVAMC) in VISN4 and their respective academic affiliates (University of Pittsburgh and University of Pennsylvania) was built upon the collective and complementary strengths of the investigators at both sites to target an area of investigation of highest priority to the VA Healthcare System and the nation as a whole. Built upon a track record of scholarship, cross-center research collaborations, development and retention of highly accomplished investigators, service, and well-established partnerships, CHERP became a Center of Innovation (COIN) that has measurable impact on the quality and equity of Veteran health care.

    About Our Investigators

    Over the past decade, CHERP investigators conducted innovative, high impact health services research; advanced the conceptual underpinnings of health equity research to facilitate the work of others; partnered with operations and policy leaders on research and quality improvement initiatives; promoted the implementation and dissemination of findings to improve the clinical care and health outcomes of Veterans; and supported the development of junior investigators who have become leaders in this field. CHERP provides infrastructure and support for approximately 42 core investigators engaged in health services research at the VA Pittsburgh Medical Center and the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. These physicians, nurses, and PhD investigators have broad expertise in quantitative and qualitative research methods, including clinical trials, quality improvement, clinical epidemiology, large database analysis, pharmacoeconomics, psychometrics, econometrics, decision and cost-effectiveness analysis, meta-analysis, technology assessment, and implementation science. An additional 25 non-core investigators collaborate with CHERP core investigators to advance our mission and strategic goals.

    About Service

    CHERP Investigators fulfill not only national service roles, but also fulfill important service roles across a broad array of academic societies, research organizations, and within their local VAMCs, VISN4, and affiliated universities. CHERP investigators hold national leadership roles that position them to shape health care policy, improve clinical care, and impact research priorities and dissemination.

  • CSCMP s Supply Chain Quarterly – Supply Chain Analysis, Insight & More #cscmp’s #supply #chain #quarterly, #quarterly, #journal, #supply #chain, #supply #chain #management, #global #supply #chain, #supply #chain #news, #logistics, #transportation, #supply #chain #software, #supply #chain #manager, #executive, #distribution, #global #perspectives, #manufacturing, #strategies, #sourcing #and #procurement, #logistics #leadership, #enabling #technologies, #special #report, #product #design, #information #technology, #customer #demand,, #demand #management, #research, #business-to-business, #academics, #consultants, #practitioners, #supply #chain #technology, #operations, #council #of #supply #chain #management #professionals, #cscmp


    Current Issue: Quarter 1 2017

    Latest Video

    Voice on smartphones at Dotcom Distribution
    E-commerce fulfillment company Dotcom Distribution uses a mobile work execution system, including voice-directed mobile applications on smartphones. It allows Dotcom to process a large number of orders for many different clients at the same time.

    As Supply Chain Quarterly enters its second decade, we will continue to provide readers with fresh thinking about supply chain strategy in an in-depth yet accessible form.

    Sustainable procurement now has management’s attention. But a recent study finds that executives may not be willing to commit the human and financial resources needed for such programs to succeed.

    A recent supply chain talent survey shows that while the profession continues to evolve, it still lacks diversity. Let’s vow to do better.

    Research for the Real World
    The advantages of a holistic approach to cross-docking
    Authors of a selected Journal of Business Logistics (JBL) article explain the real-world implications of their academic research.

    Forward Thinking
    How Lenovo tackles the global workforce challenge
    The technology giant strengthens its supply chain talent pool by focusing on geographic, cognitive, skill, and generational diversity; its unusual approach to leadership development has created a deep bench of internationally savvy managers.

    Forward Thinking
    Keurig Green Mountain’s creative approach to strengthening supplier relationships
    The U.S.-based coffee company is drawing on its longstanding commitment to creating positive change in local communities to help it build supplier loyalty.

    Forward Thinking
    RILA and Auburn University release supply chain study
    Executives are keeping up with omnichannel demands by turning to business analytics, integrated operations, and monetized capabilities, report finds.

    Forward Thinking
    Where do you stand with Big Data Analytics? Take our brief survey!
    Be among the first 100 respondents to tell us how you re using Big Data Analytics in your supply chain and you ll be entered in a drawing for one of two $100 iTunes gift cards.

    Forward Thinking
    Gartner analysts urge supply chain executives to “aspire, challenge, and transform”
    Opening keynote at Supply Chain Executive Conference suggests strategies for taking advantage of disruptive technologies

    Forward Thinking
    Unilever tops Gartner’s Supply Chain Top 25 list for second year in a row
    The analyst group has also added Amazon to its “masters” category, which recognizes sustained supply chain leadership over the last 10 years.

    Forward Thinking
    Air cargo and global value chains: Made for each other
    World trade’s backbone is ideally suited for air, which gives hope that the mode’s future will be brighter than its recent past.

    Forward Thinking
    Freight tonnage drops 2.5% in April; truck group surprised by size of fall
    The American Trucking Associations, which produces the figures, blames the drop on a decline in housing starts.

    CSCMP and collaborate on supply chain paper contest
    The first-place winner of the annual Call for Papers for Young Professionals will receive a complimentary registration to the CSCMP EDGE conference.

    In their own words: Members tell why CSCMP is important to them
    A new video produced by the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals features members’ thoughts on the personal and professional benefits of membership in the organization.

    CSCMP EDGE conference announces its lineup of keynote speakers
    A writer from Pixar Animation Studio, an artificial intelligence expert, and a war hero will provide advice on leading during times of change.

    Tackling the challenge of last-mile delivery
    In the latest CSCMP Hot Topics publication, A.T. Kearney analysts predict how companies will respond to the increasing demands and costs associated with e-commerce logistics.

    Copyright 2017 CSCMP’s Supply Chain Quarterly, a publication of Supply Chain Media, LLC. All rights reserved.

    CSCMP’s Supply Chain Quarterly, Tower Square, Number 4, 500 E. Washington St. North Attleboro, MA 02760
    CSCMP’s Supply Chain Quarterly is published by Supply Chain Media LLC, a joint venture of CSCMP and AGiLE Business Media LLC. The views and opinions expressed in articles appearing in CSCMP’s Supply Chain Quarterly are the authors’ and do not necessarily reflect those of the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals or of Supply Chain Media LLC.

    Multec Communications #police, #radio, #fire, #hospital, #business, #public #safety, #ems, #vertex, #vertex #standard, #repeater, #two #way #radio, #transportation, #2 #way #radio, #medical, #security, #mobile, #factory, #hunting, #army, #engineering, #navy, #electronic, #midland, #ltr, #research, #manufacturing, #fleet, #farming, #digital, #gmrs, #frs, #hf, #ssb, #am, #fm, #home #improvement, #emergency, #military, #disaster, #homeland #security, #midland, #maxon, #wilson, #forestry, #agriculture, #emergency #services, #mobile #radio, #walkie #talkie, #coast #guard, #marine #corps, #standard, #chemical, #school, #university, #electrical, #college, #dpw, #public #works, #land #mobile #radio, #construction, #contractor, #motorola, #detective, #communications, #engineering, #data, #police #radio, #comtelco, #police #equipment, #microphone, #duplexer, #coax, #telemetry, #industrial, #kenwood, #signaling, #swat, #digital, #mdc-1200, #ani, #police #chief, #low #band, #p25, #emergency #communications, #trunking, #fire #chief, #antenna, #portable #radio, #business #communication, #conservation, #mining, #man #pack, #radio #system, #fire #radio, #rubber #duck, #radio #frequency, #analog, #p25 #digital, #shortwave #radio, #propagation, #new #construction, #fleet, #dispatch, #grain #elevator, #twoway #radio, #hand #held #radio, #emergency, #local #government, #coaxial #cable, #digital #radio, #oil #rig, #refinery, #apco, #waterproof, #national #fire #academy, #emergency #management, #oil #refinery, #data #radio, #walky #talky, #apco, #seismic, #submersible, #telemetry #radio, #r # # #d


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    Imperial Global Online MBA #high-tech, #connected, #tailored, #part #time, #engaging, #engagement, #technology, #world #class, #teaching, #research, #imagine, #innovate, #inspire, #projects, #distance #learning, #distance #learning #courses, #london, #program, #tanaka, #south #kensington, #correspondence, #education, #university, #degree, #mba #course, #uk #online #mba, #accredited #online #mba, #best #online #degree, #online #degree #programs, #university, #mba #distance #learning, #online #study, #mba #education, #master #degree #online, #business #management, #master #on #line, #master #in #business #management, #postgraduate, #what #is #mba #


    Global Online MBA

    Imperial’s Global Online MBA brings our outstanding MBA experience to you in a flexible online format

    Just launched: trial version of our bespoke,
    online learning platform, The Hub – trial now ve recently been ranked 8th in the QS World University Rankings.

    Our cutting-edge educational technology, The Hub, designed by our award-winning Edtech Lab provides a dynamic, flexible online experience.

    Cohort and community

    The programme offers the best of both worlds. Our innovative online community-based approach allows you to study flexibly and from wherever you are in the world. During the programme, you ll spend time in London meeting your classmates and building a truly global network.

    Fusion of business and technology

    We combine innovative thinking and insight with new technology to develop practical solutions to real world issues, benefiting business and improving society.

    Upcoming information sessions

    We hold online information sessions throughout the year, along with international information sessions in major cities.

    To find out more about the Global Online MBA programme via our webinars or info sessions in a city near you, please visit our meet us page .

    Bond Rating, bond research.#Bond #research


    Bond Rating

    Bond research

    Bond research

    What is a ‘Bond Rating’

    A bond rating is a grade given to bonds that indicates their credit quality. Private independent rating services such as Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s Investors Service and Fitch Ratings Inc. provide these evaluations of a bond issuer’s financial strength, or its the ability to pay a bond’s principal and interest in a timely fashion.


    BREAKING DOWN ‘Bond Rating’

    Bond Ratings Affect Pricing, Yield, and a Reflection of Long-Term Outlook

    The bond rating is an important process because the rating alerts investors to the quality and stability of the bond. That is, the rating greatly influences interest rates, investment appetite, and bond pricing. Furthermore, the independent rating agencies issue ratings based on future expectations and outlook.

    Higher rated bonds, known as investment grade bonds, are seen as safer and more stable investments that are tied to corporations or government entities that have a positive outlook. Investment grade bonds contain “AAA” to “BBB-“ (or Aaa to Baa3 for Moody’s rating scale) ratings and will usually see bond yields increase as ratings decrease. Most of the most common “AAA” bond securities are in U.S. Treasury Bonds.

    Non-investment grade bonds or “junk bonds” usually carry ratings of “BB+” to “D” (Baa1 to C for Moody’s) and even “not rated.” Bonds that carry these ratings are seen as higher risk investments that are able to attract investor attention through their high yields. However, investors of junk bonds should note the implications and risks that are involved with investing in bonds that are issued by companies with liquidity issues. A good example of non-investment grade bond can be seen with the S ?>

    7 Steps to Defining Your Niche Market #niche #marketing,starting #a #business,market #research,customer #research,niche,syob


    7 Steps to Defining Your Niche Market

    December 30, 2014

    In their book, Start Your Own Business , the staff of Entrepreneur Media, Inc. guides you through the critical steps to starting a business, then supports you in surviving the first three years as a business owner. In this edited excerpt, the authors explain how you can find the right niche for your entrepreneurial needs.

    You ve come up with a great idea for a business, but you re not ready to roll yet. Before you go any further, the next step is figuring out just who your market is.

    There are two basic markets you can sell to: consumer and business. These divisions are fairly obvious. For example, if you re selling women s clothing from a retail store, your target market is consumers; if you re selling office supplies, your target market is businesses (this is referred to as B2B sales). In some cases for example, if you run a printing business you may be marketing to both businesses and individuals.

    No business particularly a small one can be all things to all people. The more narrowly you can define your target market, the better. This process is known as creating a niche and is key to success for even the biggest companies. Walmart and Tiffany are both retailers, but they have very different niches: Walmart caters to bargain-minded shoppers, while Tiffany appeals to upscale jewelry consumers.

    Many people talk about finding a niche as if it were something under a rock or at the end of the rainbow, ready-made. That s nonsense, says Lynda Falkenstein, author of Nichecraft: Using Your Specialness to Focus Your Business, Corner Your Market and Make Customers Seek You Out. Good niches don t just fall into your lap; they must be carefully crafted.

    Rather than creating a niche, many entrepreneurs make the mistake of falling into the all over the map trap, claiming they can do many things and be good at all of them. These people quickly learn a tough lesson, Falkenstein warns: Smaller is bigger in business, and smaller is not all over the map; it s highly focused.

    Creating a good niche, Falkenstein advises, involves following a seven-step process:

    1.Make a wish list.

    With whom do you want to do business? Be as specific as you can. Identify the geographic range and the types of businesses or customers you want your business to target. If you don t know whom you want to do business with, you can t make contact. You must recognize that you can t do business with everybody, Falkenstein cautions. Otherwise, you risk exhausting yourself and confusing your customers.

    These days, the trend is toward smaller niches. Targeting teenagers isn t specific enough; targeting male, African American teenagers with family incomes of $40,000 and up is. Aiming at companies that sell software is too broad; aiming at Northern California-based companies that provide internet software sales and training and have sales of $15 million or more is a better goal.


    Clarify what you want to sell, remembering that a) you can t be all things to all people and b) smaller is bigger. Your niche isn t the same as the field in which you work. For example, a retail clothing business is not a niche but a field. A more specific niche may be maternity clothes for executive women.

    To begin this focusing process, Falkenstein suggests using these techniques to help you:

    • Make a list of things you do best and the skills implicit in each of them.
    • List your achievements.
    • Identify the most important lessons you ve learned in life.
    • Look for patterns that reveal your style or approach to resolving problems.

    Your niche should arise naturally from your interests and experience. For example, if you spent 10 years working in a consulting firm but also spent 10 years working for a small, family-owned business, you may decide to start a consulting business that specializes in small, family-owned companies.

    3.Describe the customer s worldview.

    A successful business uses what Falkenstein calls the Platinum Rule: Do unto others as they would do unto themselves. When you look at the world from your prospective customers perspective, you can identify their needs or wants. The best way to do this is to talk to prospective customers and identify their main concerns.


    At this stage, your niche should begin to take shape as your ideas and the client s needs and wants coalesce to create something new. A good niche has five qualities:

    • It takes you where you want to go in other words, it conforms to your long-term vision.
    • Somebody else wants it namely, customers.
    • It s carefully planned.
    • It s one-of-a-kind, the only game in town.
    • It evolves, allowing you to develop different profit centers and still retain the core business, thus ensuring long-term success.


    Now it s time to evaluate your proposed product or service against the five criteria in Step 4. Perhaps you ll find that the niche you had in mind requires more business travel than you re ready for. That means it doesn t fulfill one of the above criteria it won t take you where you want to go. So scrap it, and move on to the next idea.


    Once you have a match between niche and product, test-market it. Give people an opportunity to buy your product or service not just theoretically but actually putting it out there, Falkenstein suggests. This can be done by offering samples, such as a free mini-seminar or a sample copy of your newsletter. The test shouldn t cost you a lot of money: If you spend huge amounts of money on the initial market test, you re probably doing it wrong, she says.

    7.Go for it!

    It s time to implement your idea. For many entrepreneurs, this is the most difficult stage. But fear not: If you did your homework, entering the market will be a calculated risk, not just a gamble.

    The Staff of Entrepreneur Media, Inc.

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