221 Suv Cars in India, Fuel Efficient Suv Car Prices in 2015 #car #lots


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Fuel Economy #want #to #buy #a #car


#economy cars
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CAFE – Fuel Economy

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)

LATEST NEWS

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

CAFE Fuel Economy Standards and Midterm Evaluation for Light-Duty Vehicles, MYs 2022-2025

In October of 2012, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued joint final rules to further improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for passenger cars and light trucks. Since NHTSA is required by Congress to set CAFE standards for no more than five years at a time, it issued final standards for model years 2017 to 2021 and presented non-final “augural” standards for years 2022-2025. The non-final standards were presented in the interest of aiding manufacturers in future product planning and of harmonization with EPA’s greenhouse gas emission standards. NHTSA will propose and establish CAFE standards for MYs 2022-2025 through a comprehensive future rulemaking that will be informed by the latest available data and information.


Top 10 Best Gas Mileage Compact Cars, Best MPG Coupes, Fuel Efficient Small Cars #used #car #pricing


#best small car
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Top 10 Best Gas Mileage Coupes and Compact Cars

#10 – 2016 Chevrolet Cruze Limited

The standard features of the Chevrolet Cruze Limited ECO Manual include ECOTEC 1.4L I-4 138hp engine intercooled turbo, 6-speed manual transmission with overdrive, 4-wheel anti-lock brakes (ABS), side seat mounted airbags, curtain 1st and 2nd row overhead airbags, rear side-impact airbag, driver and passenger knee airbag, airbag occupancy sensor, air conditioning, 17 forged aluminum wheels, cruise control, ABS and driveline traction control, StabiliTrak electronic stability.

#9 – 2015 Toyota Prius c

#8 – 2015 Chevrolet Cruze

The standard features of the Chevrolet Cruze Diesel include 2.0L I-4 151hp engine intercooled turbo, 6-speed automatic transmission with overdrive, 4-wheel anti-lock brakes (ABS), side seat mounted airbags, curtain 1st and 2nd row overhead airbags, rear side-impact airbag, driver and passenger knee airbag, airbag occupancy sensor, air conditioning, 17 aluminum wheels, cruise control, ABS and driveline traction control, StabiliTrak electronic stability.

#7 – 2015 Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive

The standard features of the Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive Base include 177hp engine 1-speed automatic transmission, 4-wheel anti-lock brakes (ABS), integrated navigation system, side seat mounted airbags, curtain 1st and 2nd row overhead airbags, rear side-impact airbag, driver knee airbag, airbag occupancy sensor, THERMATIC air conditioning, 17 aluminum wheels, cruise control, ABS and driveline traction control.

#6 – 2015 smart fortwo electric drive

#5 – 2016 Nissan LEAF

The standard features of the Nissan LEAF S include 107hp engine 1-speed automatic transmission, 4-wheel anti-lock brakes (ABS), side seat mounted airbags, curtain 1st and 2nd row overhead airbags, airbag occupancy sensor, automatic air conditioning, 16 steel wheels, cruise control, ABS traction control, electronic stability.

#4 – 2015 Volkswagen e-Golf

#3 – 2016 FIAT 500e

The standard features of the FIAT 500e Battery Electric include 111hp engine 1-speed automatic transmission, 4-wheel anti-lock brakes (ABS), integrated navigation system, side seat mounted airbags, curtain 1st and 2nd row overhead airbags, driver knee airbag, airbag occupancy sensor, automatic air conditioning, 15 aluminum wheels, cruise control, ABS and driveline traction control.

#2 – 2015 Chevrolet Spark EV


Elon Musk Is Right: Hydrogen Is – An Incredibly Dumb – Car Fuel #toronto #car #rental


#hydrogen cars
#

Elon Musk Is Right: Hydrogen Is An Incredibly Dumb Car Fuel

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Last month, Tesla CEO Elon Musk explained at length why hydrogen fuel cell cars are extremely silly and why hydrogen is an incredibly dumb alternative fuel.

Musk also said, there s no need for us to have this debate. I ve said my peace on this, it will be super obvious as time goes by. Indeed, it is super obvious already, as I ve written many times see my 2014 series. Tesla Trumps Toyota, which explains why hydrogen cars can’t compete with pure electric cars. A key reason Musk calls hydrogen incredibly dumb its untenably inefficient use of carbon-free power compared to electric vehicles (EVs) is detailed below.

In the meantime, Musk whose Tesla bio lists him as Co-Founder, CEO, and Product Architect has been amping up his efforts to be the next Steve Jobs and to make his electric car company, Tesla, the next Apple. Bloomberg reported last week that the 6000-worker company has hired at least 150 former Apple employees, more than from any other company, even carmakers.

“It’s almost an unfair advantage, according to Morgan Stanley auto industry analyst Adam Jonas. He told Bloomberg, “As software goes from 10 percent of the value of the car to 60 over 10 years, that disadvantage [for traditional carmakers] will intensify.”

But will Tesla be the next Apple or will Apple be the next Tesla? Apple has itself poached 50 Tesla employees, supposedly offering $250,000 signing bonuses and 60 percent salary increases a heck of an incentive to work at a company so successful, its market capitalization just hit the all-time record of $700 billion. Business Insider reports that an email from an Apple employee says its still-secret effort, will change the landscape and give Tesla a run for its money.

We are strictly in rumor-mill territory here. But there is a camera-equipped van registered to Apple that is rumored to be a self-driving car, but is more likely a mapping vehicle, according to CNBC and Wired. I digress.

Returning to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, EV-maker Musk has, unsurprisingly, long been critical of the only other plausible zero emission vehicle. He called them bullshit in 2013, briefly noting their relative high cost and infrastructure issues. In 2014 Musk said. “They’re mind-bogglingly stupid and “Success is simply not possible.” Why?

“Consider the whole fuel cell system against a Model S. It’s far worse in volume and mass terms, and far, far, worse in cost. And I haven’t even talked about hydrogen being so hard to handle.”

Then, last month, at a press conference in Detroit, Musk offered his most detailed explanation for why hydrogen fuel cell vehicles make no sense. He was asked You ve been very vocal about the need for companies to reduce their emissions. Why are you so critical of hydrogen fuel cells, which are another pathway to zero emission vehicles. Do you stand by those comments?

Here s Musk s full answer:

His key argument is one I have been making for more than a decade, since my 2004 book, The Hype About Hydrogen. Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate

As Musk explains:

Hydrogen is an energy storage mechanism. It is not a source of energy. So you have to get that hydrogen from somewhere. if you get that hydrogen from water, so you re splitting H20, electrolysis is extremely inefficient as an energy process . if you say took a solar panel and use the energy from that to just charge a battery pack directly, compared to try to split water, take the hydrogen, dump the oxygen, compress the hydrogen to an extremely high pressure (or liquefy it) and then put it in a car and run a fuel-cell, it is about half the efficiency, it s terrible. Why would you do that? It makes no sense.

In fact, Musk was being generous. In a 2006 Scientific American article I wrote with advanced-hybrid guru Andy Frank, we explain that The entire process of electrolysis, transportation, pumping and fuel-cell conversion would leave only about 20 to 25 percent of the original zero-carbon electricity to drive the motor. But in an EV or plug-in hybrid, the process of electricity transmission, charging an onboard battery and discharging the battery would leave 75 to 80 percent of the original electricity to drive the motor. So the hydrogen car is more like one third as efficient as the EV.

Put in more basic terms, the plug-in or EV should be able to travel three to four times farther on a kilowatt-hour of renewable electricity than a hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle could ! Here are some numbers from the Advanced Power and Energy Program at UC Irvine:

The situation is actually worse for FCVs, or what the figure calls Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). The two best cases for FCEVs in the chart a hydrogen pipeline system from central station renewable generation and onsite renewable generation and electrolysis are wildly implausible for many decades to come, if ever.

In any case, we have this huge global warming problem going on right now. We aren t going to go to all the trouble of creating a premium solution zero-carbon electricity only to throw away most of it as part of some elaborate hydrogen FCV scheme, a scheme that also requires the creation of an elaborate and expensive new system of green hydrogen production and/or delivery infrastructure. That s particularly true when we can just run EVs on the premium carbon-free power directly (or, for that matter, simply continue to slash vehicle CO2 emissions through the straightforward continuation of fuel economy improvements).

So yes, hydrogen Is an incredibly dumb car fuel, especially if you are concerned about global warming.


Fuel Cell Vehicles #antique #cars


#hydrogen cars
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Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) have the potential to significantly reduce our dependence on foreign oil and lower harmful emissions that contribute to climate change. FCVs run on hydrogen gas rather than gasoline and emit no harmful tailpipe emissions. Several challenges must be overcome before these vehicles will be competitive with conventional vehicles, but the potential benefits of this technology are substantial.

A Look Inside

FCVs look like conventional vehicles from the outside, but inside they contain technologically advanced components not found on today’s vehicles. The most obvious difference is the fuel cell stack that converts hydrogen gas stored onboard with oxygen from the air into electricity to drive the electric motor that propels the vehicle. The major components of a typical FCV are illustrated below.

Click on a box to read more.

Photo courtesy of American Honda Motor Corp.


Hydrogen Cars Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure #use #car


#hydrogen cars
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RECENT BLOG POSTS

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars

In 2005, Honda leased the first commercial FCV to a family in Redondo Beach, California. In 2008, the Honda FCX Clarity became the first production line built fuel cell lease vehicle rolled out to the same family plus dozens others. In late 2012, Hyundai started building production line fuel cell vehicles for sales to fleet managers worldwide.

For the past 36 years, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been conducting research on fuel cells for use in transportation, industry and residential use.

Unlike many of the hybrid and green vehicles currently on the market, hydrogen fuel cells can offer the promise of zero emission technology, where the only byproduct from the automobiles is heat and water vapor. Current fossil-fuel burning vehicles emit all sorts of pollutants such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, ozone and microscopic particulate matter.

Zero Emissions

Hybrids and other green autos address these issues to a large extent but only hydrogen cars hold the promise of zero emission of pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that fossil-fuel automobiles emit 1 ½ billion tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere each year and going to hydrogen fuel based transportation would all but eliminate this.

Not only that, H2 autos will lessen the United States dependence upon foreign oil. The so-called hydrogen highway will mean less dependence upon OPEC, the big U. S. oil companies, oil refinery malfunctions and breakdowns and less resistance from oil-selling nations like Venezuela and Saudi Arabia or from hostile nations who would rather sell elsewhere.


Hydrogen cars – 2015 UK guide to fuel cell vehicles #rent #a #car #deals


#hydrogen cars
#

Fuel cell cars

Similar to a battery-electric car, a fuel cell car dispenses with the internal combustion engine altogether. Fuel cells are electro-chemical devices that convert the energy stored in chemical form directly into electrical energy, water and heat.

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How do fuel cell cars work?

The fundamental principle of a fuel cell is that an electro-chemical reaction is used to produce electricity. As is the case for an electric cell, fuel cells are not limited by the laws of thermodynamics. This means that they are able to achieve higher conversion efficiencies than conventional engines that only make use of 20%-25% of the fuel’s energy fuel cells can achieve up to 60%. However, unlike a battery the reactants (fuel and oxygen) have to be continually supplied for an electric current to be produced.

The fuel cell with the greatest potential for automotive applications is the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). The principal advantage of the PEMFC is its ability to operate at relatively low temperatures (which reduces start-up times). The cell’s conducting electrodes are made of graphite, which are grooved to allow easy passage of the reactants while maintaining electrical contact with the electrolyte. At the anode, hydrogen is catalytically disassociated to leave hydrogen ions. An external circuit conducts electrons while the positive ions migrate through the electrolytic membrane to the cathode. There they combine with oxygen and electrons from the external circuit to form water.

If a fuel cell could state a preference for its favourite fuel it would be hydrogen due to the ease with which the element can form ions. The gas is highly combustible and has a high energy-content. However, hydrogen’s low density has presented a technological challenge to the design of on-board hydrogen storage systems. At room temperature and pressure, to store an equivalent amount of energy as contained in a typical petrol tank would require a hydrogen tank with around 800 times the volume. However, three main solutions to hydrogen storage have been devised: Compression the gas being stored in cylinders at up to 7000 times atmospheric pressure; Cryogenic systems these retain the low temperature required for hydrogen liquefaction (-253degC); and Metal-hydrides special metal alloys absorb hydrogen when under pressure.

One approach that avoids the problems of on-board hydrogen storage is to reform a hydrogen-rich fuel on-board the car, so generating gas on-demand. As reformers need to have fast response times, fuels that can be processed at relatively low temperatures are preferred. Of the liquid fuels, methanol is unique in that it can be reformed at 260degC, as compared to 600-900degC for petrol, ethanol, natural gas, and propane. Therefore methanol is considered to be the prime candidate for on-board fuel reforming.

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How do I refuel a fuel cell car?

The method of refuelling a fuel cell car depends on the type of fuel used. As discussed above, a number of on-board fuels are possible including hydrogen, methanol and petrol. As the latter two are liquids, using these would be like filling a conventional car.

However, if hydrogen is widely adopted, refuelling becomes a very different process. Although hydrogen gas refuelling is still being developed, they all involve the use of a flexible connection between the dispenser and the car that creates a sealed system.

Given the novelty of hydrogen cars, there are still relatively few hydrogen-refuelling stations worldwide. However, the number of stations is increasing with the advent of fuel cell vehicle demonstration programmes in the USA, Europe and the Far East. As a result, more and more hydrogen stations (some of which are publicly accessible) are being built in cities throughout Europe, already including Amsterdam, Barcelona, Hamburg, London, Luxembourg, Madrid, Porto, Reykjavik, Stockholm and Stuttgart.

Visit h2stations.org for a list of hydrogen filling stations worldwide.

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Are fuel cell cars better for the environment?

If non-renewable energy is used, the impact on emissions is difficult to quantify, depending on the method of on-board fuel storage and fuel production. However, considering the main options, and accounting for carbon dioxide and methane emissions, fuel cell cars are predicted to show a significant reduction in life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of up to 55% as compared to petrol.

Estimates based on modelling suggest very low lifecycle regulated emissions associated with fuel cell car use. Regulated emissions from UK hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are predicted to be significantly lower than petrol cars with NOx emissions being cut by over 70%. As is the case with greenhouse gas emissions, if renewable energy is used to manufacture hydrogen fuel, then regulated emissions are again virtually zero.

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What are the costs of owning a fuel cell car?

As fuel cell vehicles have yet to go into commercial production, no one can predict with certainty how much a fuel cell car will cost to own, but it is likely that they will cost significantly more than petrol or diesel equivalents (by up to 100%). However, the price will fall if sufficient numbers of fuel cell cars are produced.

One way fuel cell cars are likely to reduce running costs is if used within urban areas in which a Congestion Charge applies. As is the case with battery-electric cars, fuel cell cars are likely to receive a 100% discount on the London Congestion Charge (although owners will need to register with Transport for London and pay an annual 10 fee). With a 8 payable daily charge, this could provide a potential annual saving of up to 2000.

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Where can I buy a fuel cell car?

At present, no vehicles powered by fuel cells have come to the UK market. However, the situation is likely to change dramatically over the coming years. Already demonstration fuel cell vehicles are in use on UK roads and include fuel cell black cabs and Citaro fuel cell buses in London. The buses were used as part of the Cleaner Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) programme, which ran from 2003 until 2007 and successfully demonstrated the potential of hydrogen with 30 fuel cell buses across Europe.

In the UK, the London Hydrogen Partnership is coordinating activities to explore some of the barriers associated with hydrogen vehicle adoption. The Partnership is researching conditions required for a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure in London, as well as investigating costs and timescales for implementation of fuel cell vehicles in the capital.


Energy Action Scotland #energy, #fuel, #scotland, #national #body, #poverty, #campaigns


#

It is often stated in policy circles that fuel poverty is a matter devolved to each of the UK nations, but it is important to note that energy policy is a matter reserved to the UK Government. Moreover, the major main energy efficiency programme delivered via the energy companies is set by the UK Government. In addition, many social security benefits and other initiatives – such as the Warm Home Discount – that provide essential financial support to people on low incomes are reserved to Westminster. EAS, the national fuel poverty charity in Scotland, therefore calls for the these actions at a UK level.

Warm and Healthy Homes Fund Video

EAS received funding to deliver the Warm and Healthy Homes Fund in Scotland, part of a 26.2 million Health and Innovation Programme, which brought affordable warmth to over 6,000 fuel poor and vulnerable households in Scotland, Wales and England.

EAS worked with THAW in Orkney, TIG in the Western Isles and Glasgow City Council. This is a video of the project in the Western Isles. More information can be seen on the Projects section of the website.

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EDF Energy Price Rise – Energy Action Scotland Reaction

13-03-2017

Response to the news today (13 March) that SSE is increasing its standard electricity prices but holding its gas prices for domestic customers

08-03-2017

Energy Action Scotland Welcomes New Commitment to Eradicating Fuel Poverty

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If you are not already a member or you are interested in knowing more click the link below.


Fuel Cell Vehicles #cars #for #sale #in #essex


#hydrogen cars
#

Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) have the potential to significantly reduce our dependence on foreign oil and lower harmful emissions that contribute to climate change. FCVs run on hydrogen gas rather than gasoline and emit no harmful tailpipe emissions. Several challenges must be overcome before these vehicles will be competitive with conventional vehicles, but the potential benefits of this technology are substantial.

A Look Inside

FCVs look like conventional vehicles from the outside, but inside they contain technologically advanced components not found on today’s vehicles. The most obvious difference is the fuel cell stack that converts hydrogen gas stored onboard with oxygen from the air into electricity to drive the electric motor that propels the vehicle. The major components of a typical FCV are illustrated below.

Click on a box to read more.

Photo courtesy of American Honda Motor Corp.


Hydrogen Cars Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure #find #car #value


#hydrogen cars
#

RECENT BLOG POSTS

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars

In 2005, Honda leased the first commercial FCV to a family in Redondo Beach, California. In 2008, the Honda FCX Clarity became the first production line built fuel cell lease vehicle rolled out to the same family plus dozens others. In late 2012, Hyundai started building production line fuel cell vehicles for sales to fleet managers worldwide.

For the past 36 years, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been conducting research on fuel cells for use in transportation, industry and residential use.

Unlike many of the hybrid and green vehicles currently on the market, hydrogen fuel cells can offer the promise of zero emission technology, where the only byproduct from the automobiles is heat and water vapor. Current fossil-fuel burning vehicles emit all sorts of pollutants such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, ozone and microscopic particulate matter.

Zero Emissions

Hybrids and other green autos address these issues to a large extent but only hydrogen cars hold the promise of zero emission of pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that fossil-fuel automobiles emit 1 ½ billion tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere each year and going to hydrogen fuel based transportation would all but eliminate this.

Not only that, H2 autos will lessen the United States dependence upon foreign oil. The so-called hydrogen highway will mean less dependence upon OPEC, the big U. S. oil companies, oil refinery malfunctions and breakdowns and less resistance from oil-selling nations like Venezuela and Saudi Arabia or from hostile nations who would rather sell elsewhere.